After I had returned to Louisville from Danville, My sister, Lizzie White, got to calling me Mollie, and it was with her that the name started. My mother's name was Octavia Smith and it was from her that I got it but where the name came from to her I never knew. I was only three years old when she died. No, I don't know to whom she belonged before she was brought from Virginia to Kentucky. Citations 1 : Norman R.
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Yetman, ed. Historians Douglas Egerton and Leon Litwack explain the process of freedpeople adopting new surnames.
Between and , American diplomat Hiram Bingham IV, stationed in Marseille, France, helped as many as 2, Jews escape Nazi persecution by defying United States policies and issuing hundreds of immigration papers. Scholars discuss the evolution of the definition of freedom for emancipated slaves after the Civil War. Students examine how freed people in the United States sought to define freedom after Emancipation. The Reconstruction Era and the Fragility of Democracy. Add or Edit Playlist.
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In the s, ex-slave Martin Jackson explained why he chose his last name after Emancipation: The master's name was usually adopted by a slave after he was set free. I am a farmer. Tell me the name you were called before you met Phillip Fry? Who called you by that name and where was it done? Besides the Morrows, whom else did you live with in Louisville? How did you ever come by the name of "Mollie"? Where did you get the maiden name of Smith from? The weather was unseasonably cold and they had little food. The children were drugged with paregoric to keep them quiet while slave patrols rode by.
When the Civil War broke out in , Tubman saw a Union victory as a key step toward the abolition of slavery. She became a fixture in the camps, particularly in Port Royal, South Carolina , assisting fugitives. Tubman met with General David Hunter , a strong supporter of abolition. He declared all of the "contrabands" in the Port Royal district free, and began gathering former slaves for a regiment of black soldiers. President Abraham Lincoln , however, was not prepared to enforce emancipation on the southern states, and reprimanded Hunter for his actions. Master Lincoln, he's a great man, and I am a poor negro; but the negro can tell master Lincoln how to save the money and the young men.
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He can do it by setting the negro free. Suppose that was an awful big snake down there, on the floor. He bite you. Folks all scared, because you die. You send for a doctor to cut the bite; but the snake, he rolled up there, and while the doctor doing it, he bite you again. The doctor dug out that bite; but while the doctor doing it, the snake, he spring up and bite you again; so he keep doing it, till you kill him. That's what master Lincoln ought to know. Tubman served as a nurse in Port Royal, preparing remedies from local plants and aiding soldiers suffering from dysentery.
She rendered assistance to men with smallpox ; that she did not contract the disease herself started more rumors that she was blessed by God. To ease the tension, she gave up her right to these supplies and made money selling pies and root beer, which she made in the evenings. When Lincoln finally issued the Emancipation Proclamation in January , Tubman considered it an important step toward the goal of liberating all black people from slavery.
She later worked alongside Colonel James Montgomery , and provided him with key intelligence that aided the capture of Jacksonville, Florida. Later that year, Tubman became the first woman to lead an armed assault during the Civil War. On the morning of June 2, , Tubman guided three steamboats around Confederate mines in the waters leading to the shore.
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Tubman watched as slaves stampeded toward the boats. Although their owners, armed with handguns and whips, tried to stop the mass escape, their efforts were nearly useless in the tumult. More than slaves were rescued in the Combahee River Raid. For two more years, Tubman worked for the Union forces, tending to newly liberated slaves, scouting into Confederate territory, and nursing wounded soldiers in Virginia.
During a train ride to New York, the conductor told her to move into the smoking car. She refused, explaining her government service. He cursed at her and grabbed her, but she resisted and he summoned two other passengers for help. While she clutched at the railing, they muscled her away, breaking her arm in the process. They threw her into the smoking car, causing more injuries.
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As these events transpired, other white passengers cursed Tubman and shouted for the conductor to kick her off the train. Despite her years of service, Tubman never received a regular salary and was for years denied compensation. Tubman spent her remaining years in Auburn, tending to her family and other people in need. She worked various jobs to support her elderly parents, and took in boarders to help pay the bills.
Though he was 22 years younger than she was, on March 18, they were married at the Central Presbyterian Church. Tubman's friends and supporters from the days of abolition, meanwhile, raised funds to support her. In Bradford released another volume, also intended to help alleviate Tubman's poverty, called Harriet, the Moses of her People.
Facing accumulated debts including payments for her property in Auburn , Tubman fell prey in to a swindle involving gold transfer.
Two men, one named Stevenson and the other John Thomas, claimed to have in their possession a cache of gold smuggled out of South Carolina. They insisted that they knew a relative of Tubman's, and she took them into her home, where they stayed for several days. Thus the situation seemed plausible, and a combination of her financial woes and her good nature led her to go along with the plan. Once the men had lured her into the woods, however, they attacked her and knocked her out with chloroform , then stole her purse and bound and gagged her.
When she was found by her family, she was dazed and injured, and the money was gone. In , Representatives Clinton D. Hazelton of Wisconsin introduced a bill H. In her later years, Tubman worked to promote the cause of women's suffrage. A white woman once asked Tubman whether she believed women ought to have the vote, and received the reply: "I suffered enough to believe it.
Anthony and Emily Howland. She described her actions during and after the Civil War, and used the sacrifices of countless women throughout modern history as evidence of women's equality to men.
This wave of activism kindled a new wave of admiration for Tubman among the press in the United States. However, her endless contributions to others had left her in poverty, and she had to sell a cow to buy a train ticket to these celebrations. In , she donated a parcel of real estate she owned to the church, under the instruction that it be made into a home for "aged and indigent colored people".
She said: "[T]hey make a rule that nobody should come in without they have a hundred dollars. Now I wanted to make a rule that nobody should come in unless they didn't have no money at all.